2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin

Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs; known colloquially and inaccurately as dioxins) are subject to the European Waste Incineration Directive, which puts strict limits on emissions to air. Incineration is controlled to minimise their production, and the flue gas is treated post-combustion. The resulting toxic fly ash must be handled as hazardous waste.… Continue reading

2,3,4,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran

Polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs; known colloquially as furans) are subject to the European Waste Incineration Directive, which puts strict limits on emissions to air. Incineration is controlled to minimise their production, and the flue gas is treated post-combustion. The resulting toxic fly ash must be handled as hazardous waste. Emissions of… Continue reading

Sulphur dioxide

Sulphur dioxide is subject to the European Waste Incineration Directive, which puts strict limits on emissions to air. Sulphur dioxide, along with particulate matter, is implicated in forming winter-time smog. It can cause irritation, coughing and a feeling of chest tightness. People suffering from asthma are particularly sensitive to high… Continue reading

Particulate matter

Incinerators may emit fine particles, and the EU Waste Incineration Directive puts limits on emissions to air of heavy metals, dust, and total organic carbon, among other pollutants. Therefore, incinerators operate a filtration system to control particulate emissions. Emissions of particulate matter from an incinerator typical of those currently operating… Continue reading

Hydrogen halides

Hydrogen fluoride and hydrogen chloride, but not hydrogen bromide, are subject to the European Waste Incineration Directive, which puts strict limits on emissions to air. They are acidic gases primarily released to air from combustion of fuels which contain trace amounts of fluoride, chloride or bromide. They are highly corrosive,… Continue reading